references

Healthy Pregnancy Weight Gain

1. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

2. Forsum, E. Energy Requirements during pregnancy: old questions and new findings.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004: 79: 933-934

3. Fowles E. What’s a Pregnant Woman to Eat? A Review of Current USDA Dietary Guidelines and My Pyramid. The Journal of Perinatal Education. 2010: 15: 28-33

4. King, J. Physiology of pregnancy and nutrient metabolism. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000: 71: 12185-12255

5. Ortega, R. Food, pregnancy and lactation. Public Health Nutrition. 2001: 4:1343-1346.

6. Picciano MR. Pregnancy and Lactation: Physiological Adjustments, Nutritional Requirements and the Role of Dietary Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003: 133: 1997S-2002S

Folate

1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2011, Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: baseline report for monitoring. Accessed 15 January 2012, http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=10737418875

2. Brown R, Langshaw M, Uhr E, Gibson J, Joshua D. The Impact of mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid on the blood folate levels of an Australian population. Medical Journal of Australia. 2011: 194: 65-68.

3. Creasy R, Resnik R, Iams J, Lockwood C, Moore T. 2009, ‘Anaemia and Pregnancy,’ in Creasy et al (ed), Creasy & Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 869-884.

4. National Institutes of Health 2009. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate. National Institutes of health. Viewed 15 January 2012, http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/ 

5. Picciano MR. Pregnancy and Lactation: Physiological Adjustments, Nutritional Requirements and the Role of Dietary Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003. 133: 1997S-2002S.

6. Scholl T, Johnson W. Folic acid: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000: 71: 1295-1303S.

7. Talaulikar V, Arulkumaran S. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. 2011: 66: 240-247.

8. Toriello H. Policy Statement on folic acid and neural tube defects. ACMG Practice Guidelines. 2011: 13: 593-596.

9. Food Safety Australia and New Zealand. 2009, Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification, Implenting Rquirements of the mandatory Fortification with Folic Acid under Standard 2.1.1 – Cereals and Cereal Products.

An Overview of Gestational Diabetes

1. Kolasa K, Weismiller D. 2008, ‘Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation,’ in Berdanier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York, pp. 235-25

2. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

3. Ju H, Rumbold A, Willson K, Crowther C. Borderline gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2008: 8: 31-38

4. Langer O et al. Gestational diabetes: The consequences of not treating. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001: 192: 989-97.

5. Luoto R et al. Prevention of Gestational Diabetes: Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial and One-Year Follow-up. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2010: 10: 1-11

6. Moses R, Brand-Miller J. Dietary Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Are sugar-sweetened soft drinks culpable or guilty by association? Diabetic Care. 2009: 32: 2314-2315.

7. Reece E, Leguizamon G, Wiznitzer A. Gestational Diabetes: the need for a common ground. The Lancet. 2009: 373: 1789 – 1797

8. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria. 2001, Antenatal Care Schedule – Routine Low Risk. Viewed 16 January 2012, http://www.thewomens.org.au/AntenatalCareScheduleRoutineLowRisk 

9. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria. Diabetes Mellitus: Management of Gestational Diabetes. Viewed 16 January 2012,

10. National Diabetes Services Scheme. 2010, Gestational Diabetes – Caring for yourself and your Baby.  Diabetes Australia.

Foodborne Illnesses

1. Conway R, Cullum D. 2010, ‘Vegetarians and vegans during pregnancy and lactation’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 129-137.

2. Venkitanarayanan K, Doyle M. ‘Microbiological Safety of Foods’, in Berdanier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York, pp. 37-68.

3. Bondarianzadeh D, Yeatman H, Condon-Paoloni D. Listeria education in pregnancy: lost opportunity for health professionals. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2007: 31: 468-474.

4. Posfay-Barbe K, Wald E. Listeriosis. Seminars in Fetal & Maternal Medicine. 2009: 14: 228-233.

5. Tam C, Erebara A, Einarson A. Food borne illnesses during pregnancy. Canadian Family Physician. 2012: 56: 341-342

6. Australia and New Zealand Food Authority. 2010, Listeria and Pregnancy, Viewed 2 February 2012, http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/Listeria_Brochure.pdf#search=%22listeria%20pregnancy%22

7. NSW Food Authority. 2012, Food Safety During Pregnancy, Viewed 2 February 2012, http://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/_Documents/consumer_pdf/pregnancy-brochure.pd

Iron

1. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

2. Lee HS et al. Iron status and its association with pregnancy outcome in Korean pregnant women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006: 60: 1130-1135.

3. Gambling L, McArdle H. 2010, ‘Mineral requirements of the mother and conceptus’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-Fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 24-31.

4. Alwan N, Cade J. Routine iron supplementation in pregnancy: Why is the UK different? Perspectives in Public Health. 2011: 131: 207-208.

5. Picciano M. Pregnancy and Lactation: Physiological Adjustments, Nutritional requirements and role of Dietary Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003: 133: 1997S-2002S

6. Dietary Supplements in Pregnancy. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 1981:  : 707-709.

7. NSW Food Authority. 2012, Food Safety During Pregnancy. Viewed 2 February 2012, http://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/_Documents/consumer_pdf/pregnancy-brochure.pdf

8. Allen L. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000: 71: 1280S-1284S.

9. Kolasa K, Weismiller D. 2008, ‘Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation’, in Bernadier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press New York, pp. 235-258.

10. Stoltzfus R, Dreyfuss M. 2008, Guidelines for the Use of Iron Supplements to Prevent and Treat Iron Deficiency Anaemia. INACG

Nausea and Vomiting – The Spectrum

1. Tan PC, Omar SZ. Contemporary approaches to hyperemesis during pregnancy. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001; 23; 87-93.

2. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

3. Paauw J, Davis A. 2010, ‘Hyperemesis in Pregnancy’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed),Maternal-Fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 138-146.

4. Quinlan J, Hill D. Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. American Family Physician. 2003; 68; 121-128.

5. Lee N, Saha S. Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Gastroenterology Clinical of North America. 2001; 40; 309-334.

6. Kolasa K, Weismiller D. 2008, ‘Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation’, in Bernadier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press New York, pp. 235-258.

7. Meltzer D. Complementary therapies for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Family Practice. 2000; 17; 570-573

Protein

1. Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Energy and protein intake in pregnancy (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003: 4. Accessed http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000032/pdf/standard

2. Picciano M. Dietary Supplement Use in Women: Current Status and Future Directions. Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 133; 1997S-2002S.

3. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S,Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

4. Australian Sports Commission, 2009. Protein. Viewed 25 February 2012, http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/basics/protein_-_how_much

5. Better Health Channel. 1999, Protein: Fact Sheet. Viewed 25 February 2012, http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/protein?open

6. Brown L, Regnault T, Rozance P, Barry J, Hay W. 2010, ‘Pregnancy and feto-placental growth: macronutrients’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-Fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 138-146.

7. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2005, Food For Health – Dietary Guidelines for Australians.

Vegetarian Diets

1. Weiss R, Fogelman Y, Bennett M. Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in an infant Associated With a Maternal Deficiency and a Strict Vegetarian Diet. Journal of Paediatric Hematology Oncology. 2004; 26:270-271.

2. Vegetarian Victoria. 2011, ‘Going Vegetarian.’ Viewed 8 March 2012, http://www.vegetarianvictoria.org.au/going-vegetarian/statistics-on-vegetarianism.html

3. Craig WJ. Nutrition Concerns and Health Effects of Vegetarian Diets. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2010; 25:613-620.

4. Craig WJ, Mangels AR. Position of American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009; 109: 1266-1282.

5. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

6. Conway R, Cullum A. 2010, ‘Vegetarians and vegans during pregnancy and lactation,’ in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-Fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 138-146.

7. Plisted-Fernandez C, Adams KM. 2008, ‘Vegetarian Diets in health Promotion and Disease Prevention’ in Bernadier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC

8. South Australia Health, 2010. Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breast feeding. Government of South Australia.

9. Fleming K (ed). Healthy eating and vegetarianism. Centre for Clinical Intervention, Western Australia.

10. Queensland Government, 2010. Healthy eating for vegetarian pregnant & breastfeeding mothers. Queensland Government. Viewed 6 March 2012, http://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/ACF26B7.pdf 

Dietary Therapy in Gestational Diabetes

1. Hoffman L, Nolan C, Wilson JD, Oats JN, Simmons D. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus – management guidelines.  For The Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society. Medical Journal of Australia. 1998; 169: 93-97.

2. Lopes-Virella MF, Jenkins CH. 2008, ‘Nutrition on Diabetes Mellitus’ in Bernadier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC

3. Reece E, Leguizamon G, Wiznitzer A. Gestational Diabetes: the need for a common ground. The Lancet. 2009: 373: 1789 – 1797.

4. Langer O et al. Gestational diabetes: The consequences of not treating. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001: 192: 989-97.

5. Ju H, Rumbold A, Willson K, Crowther C. Borderline gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2008: 8: 31-38

6. Monroy-Torres R, Naves-Sanchez J. The Influence of Diet to Control the Metabolism in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Gestational Diabetes.

7. Belzer LM et al. Food cravings and intake of sweet foods in healthy pregnancy and mild gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective study. Appetite. 2010: 55; 609-615

8. Diabetes Australia. 2011, Food choices for People with Diabetes. Diabetes Australia. Viewed 19 March 2012, http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/en/NDSS-Content/Resources/Diabetes-Information-Sheets/food-choices-for-diabetes/

9. Luoto R et al. Prevention of Gestational Diabetes: Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial and One-Year Follow-up. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2010: 10: 1-11

10. The Royal Women’s Hospital. Diabetes Mellitus: Management of Gestational Diabetes. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria. Viewed 16 January 2012,

http://www.thewomens.org.au/DiabetesMellitusManagementofGestationalDiabetes

11. National Diabetes Services Scheme. 2010, Gestational Diabetes – Caring for yourself and your Baby.  Diabetes Australia.

12. Nutrition and Dietetics, Women and Newborn Health Service. 2010, Gestational Diabetes Healthy Eating. Government of Western Australia, Perth.

Fertility and Diet

1. McArthur SL. 2007, Infertility [online]. ABC Health and Wellbeing, Accessed 25 March 2012,

http://www.abc.net.au/health/library/stories/2007/05/30/1919840.htm

2. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2004, Fertility: Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems – Clinical Guideline. RCOG, London. Accessed 27 March 2012,

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/NEBFertilityFull.pdf

3. Fertility Society of Australia. 2006, National Fertility Survey. Accessed 27 March 2012, http://www.fsa.au.com

4. Derbyshire, E. Taking it a step too far? Physical activity and infertility. Nutrition & Food Science. 2007; 37: 313-318.

5. Moran LJ, Dodd J, Nisenblat, Norman RJ. Obesity and Reproductive Dysfunction in Women. Endocrinology Metabolism of Clinical North America. 2011; 40: 895-906.

6. Derbyshire, E. Dietary factors and fertility in women of childbearing age. Nutrition & Food Science. 2007; 37: 100-103.

7. Chavarro and Willett. 2007, Fat, Carbs and the Science of Conception.  Newsweek Magazine. Viewed 28 March 2012, http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2007/12/01/fat-carbs-and-the-science-of-conception.html

8. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willet WC. Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007; 85: 231-237.

9. Guthrie, C. Fertility diet: The nutrients you need to conceive. The Baby Centre Medical Advisory Board. Viewed 21 March 2012, http://www.babycenter.com/0_fertility-diet-the-nutrients-you-need-to-conceive_1460692.bc 

10. Traub, G. 2010, Foods which boost fertility for HER. Fertility Homeopath. Viewed 28 March 2012, http://www.sandiegohomeopathy.com/downloads/FertilityFoods.pdf

Calcium

1. Kolasa K, Weismiller D. 2008, ‘Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation,’ in Berdanier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York, pp. 235-258.

2. Gambling L, McArdle H. 2010, ‘Mineral Requirements of the mother and conceptus’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 24-33.

3. Buppasiri P, Lumbiganon P, Thinkhamrop J, Ngamjarus C, Laopaiboom M. Calcium Supplementation (other than for preventing or treating hypertension) for improving pregnancy and infant outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011; 10: 1-62.

4. Allen LH. Women’s dietary calcium requirements are not increased by pregnancy or lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998; 67: 591-592.

5. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

6. Prentice A. Maternal Calcium requirements during pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1994; 59(s): 477S-483S.

7. Derbyshire E. The value of consuming a calcium rich diet: a focus on pregnancy. British Journal of Nursing. 2008; 17: 856-858.

8. Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011; 2: 1-51.

9. McCarthy F, Kenny L. 2010, ‘Preeclampsia’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 53-62.

10. Imdad A, Jabeen A, Bhutta A. Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries. BMI Public Health. 2011: 11(S): S18-31.

11. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2005, Food for Health – Dietary Guidelines for Australians.

Breastfeeding

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2001, Breastfeeding in Australia, 2001. Accessed 10 April, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4810.0.55.001

2. Webb K, Marks GC, Lund-Adams M, Rutishauser I, Abraham B. 2001, Towards a national system for monitoring breastfeeding in Australia: recommendations for population indicators, definitions and next steps. Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit. Australian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit. Accessed 9 April, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/3BA7CF9421770E68CA256F190004C335/$File/breastfeeding.pdf

3. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2005, Food for Health – Dietary Guidelines for Australians.

4. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2005, Dietary guidelines for children and adolescents.

5. Senterre T, Rigo J. 2010, ‘Macronutrients for lactation and infant growth’, in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 63-71.

6. Picciano MF. Pregnancy and Lactation: Physiological Adjusts, Nutritional Requirements and the Role of Dietary Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003:133; 1997S-2002S.

7. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service. 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. Government of South Australia.

Obesity

1. Davies et al. 2010, SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines: Obesity in pregnancy. No. 239, February 2010. 2010, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

2. Furber CM, McGowan L, Bower P, Kontopantelis E, Quenby S, Lavender T. Antenatal interventions for reducing weight in obese women for improving pregnancy outcome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD009334. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009334.

3. McIntyre HD, Gibbons KS, Flenady VJ, Callaway LK. Overweight and obesity in Australian mothers: epidemic or endemic? Medical Journal of Australia. 2012: 196; 184-188.

4. Galtier-Dereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. The American Journal of Clinic Nutrition. 2000; 7: 1242S-1248S.

5. Callaway LK, Prins JB, Chang AM, McIntyre HD. The prevalence and impact of overweight and obesity in an Australian obstetric population. Medical Journal of Australia. 2006: 184; 56-59.

6. Queensland Maternity and Neonatal Clinical Guideline. 2010, Obesity. Queensland Government.

7. Tanentsapf I, Heitmann B, Adegboye A. Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2011;11:81-93

8. Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries/Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2010, Guideline: Management of Women with Obesity in Pregnancy. RCOG, London.

9. Mamun A et al. Associations of excess weight gain during pregnancy with long-term maternal overweight and obesity: evidence from 21y postpartum follow-up. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010; 91: 1336-1341.

Multiple Pregnancy

1. Goodnight W, Newman R. Optimal Nutrition for Improved Twin Pregnancy Outcome. Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2009: 114; 1121-1132.

2. Rosello-Soberon ME, Fuentes-Chaparoo L, Casanueva E. Twin Pregnancies: Eating for Three? Maternal Nutrition Update. Nutrition Reviews. 2005: 63; 295-302.

3. Luke, B. 2010, ‘Multiple Pregnancy,’ in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 147-154.

4. Luke, B. Nutrition and Multiple Gestation. Seminars in Perinatology. 2005: 29; 349-354.

5. Bllard CK, Bricker L, Reed K, Wood L, Neilson JP. Nutritional Advice for improving outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2001, Issue 6. Art.No.: CD008867. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD008867.pub2.

6. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service (CYWHS). 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. South Australia Health, Adelaide.

Cheese Safety

1. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand. 2005, “Listeria and Food: Commonly asked questions”. FSANZ. Viewed 17 May 2012, http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/scienceandeducation/factsheets/factsheets2005/listeriacommonlyaske3115.cfm

2. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service (CYWHS). 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. South Australia Health, Adelaide.

3. Queensland Government. 2010, Healthy eating for vegetarian pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. Qld Government.

4. NSW Food Authority. 2012, Food Safety During Pregnancy. NSW Health.

Foods Inducing labour

1. Knoche A, Selzer C, Smolley K. Methods of Stimulating the Onset of Labour: An Exploration of maternal Satisfaction. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2008; 53: 381-387.

2. Mallory D. ‘Postdates Pregnancy,’ in Rakel D, Rakel Integrative Medicine 3rd edition, 2012 Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 476-481.

3. Luke, B. 2010, ‘Multiple Pregnancy,’ in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp. 147-1

4. Rochman B. 2011, ‘Sex and Spicy Food: Half of Women Try Folklore to Induce Labour’. Time Healthland. Viewed 25 May 2012,

http://healthland.time.com/2011/06/22/sex-spicy-food-etc-half-of-pregnant-women-try-obstetrical-folklore-to-induce-labor/

5. Lohse, M. 2010, ‘What foods can induce labour?’. Livestrong. com. Viewed 25 May 2012, http://www.livestrong.com/article/131285-foods-can-induce-labor/

6. Bayles BP. Herbal and Other Complementary Medicine Use by Texas Midwives. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2007; 52:473-478.

7. Babycenter. 2010, Natural ways to bring on labour: a guide. Viewed 20 May 2012, http://www.babycenter.com.au/pregnancy/labourandbirth/planningyourbabysbirth/naturalbringonlabour/

Fish and Mercury Levels

1. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service (CYWHS). 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. South Australia Health, Adelaide.

2. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand. 2011, Mercury in Fish – Advice on Fish Consumption. FSANZ, Canberra.

3. Health Canada. 2009, Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals – Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Health Canada. Viewed 14 June 2012, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/pubs/nutrition/omega3-eng.php

4. Dovydaitis T. Fish Consumption During Pregnancy: An Overview of the Risks and Benefits. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2008; 53: 325-330.

5. Oken E, Bellinger DC. Fish consumption, methlymercury and child neurodevelopment. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 2008; 20: 178-183.

6. Better Health Channel. 1999, Mercury in Fish.  Better Health Channel, Victoria.

Caffeine in Pregnancy

1. Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2008: 198; e1-279-e8.

2. Anderson BL, Juliano LM, Schulkin J. Caffeine’s impliations for Women’s Health and Survey of Obstetrician-Gynecologists’ Caffeine Knowledge and Assessment Practices. Journal of Women’s Health. 2009; 18: 1457-1461.

3. South Australian Government. 2010, Caffeine in Pregnancy Fact Sheet. Health Direct, South Australia.

4. Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2001, Caffeine and Pregnancy.

5. Queensland Government, 2010. Healthy eating for vegetarian pregnant & breastfeeding mothers. Queensland Government. Viewed 6 July 2012, http://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/ACF26B7.pdf

6. Kolasa K, Weismiller D. 2008, ‘Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation,’ in Berdanier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York, pp. 235-258.

7. American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. ‘Moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy. Committee Opinion No. 462, Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010; 116: 467-468.

8. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service (CYWHS). 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. South Australia Health, Adelaide.

9. NSW Food Authority. 2012, Food Safety During Pregnancy, Viewed 2 July 2012, http://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/_Documents/consumer_pdf/pregnancy-brochure

The Bowel Blues

1. Cullen G, O’Donoghue D. Constipation and pregnancy. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroeneterology. 2007; 21 (5): 807-818.

2. World Gastroenterology Organisation. 2007, “Constipation”. Practice Guidelines. Viewed 10 July 2012,

http://www.worldgastroenterology.org/assets/downloads/en/pdf/guidelines/05_constipation.pdf

3. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service (CYWHS). 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. South Australia Health, Adelaide.

4. The Royal Women’s Hospital. 2006, Avoiding Constipation after Vaginal Surgery. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.thewomens.org.au/Avoidingconstipationaftervaginalrepairsurgery

5. Blythe, J. 2005, ‘Constipation during Pregnancy.’ Health & Wellbeing. Viewed 10 July 2012, http://health.ninemsn.com.au/pregnancy/trimesters/691148/constipation-during-pregnancy

6. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

Multivitamin Tablet

1. Queensland Government, 2010. Healthy eating for vegetarian pregnant & breastfeeding mothers. Queensland Government. Viewed 2 August 2012, http://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/ACF26B7.pdf.

2. Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2009, RCOG release: RCOG issues new guidance on vitamin supplementation in pregnancy. RCOG, London. Viewed 2 August 2012, http://www.rcog.org.uk/news/rcog-release-rcog-issues-new-guidance-vitamin-supplementation-pregnancy

3. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2011, RANZCOG College Statement C-Obs 25: Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation in Pregnancy. RANZCOG, Melbourne. Viewed 4 August 2012, http://www.ranzcog.edu.au/the-ranzcog/policies-and-guidelines/college-statements/279-vitamins-and-minerals-supplementation-c-obs-25.html

4. ‘Elevit with Iodine – Ingredients.’ Bayer, Australia. Viewed 8 August 2012, http://www.elevit.com.au/about-elevit/benefits/ingredients/

5. Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004905. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004905.pub2.

6. South Australian Government. Chapter 5d – Vitamin and Mineral supplementation in pregnancy, SA Perinatal Guidelines.

7. The Royal Women’s Hospital. 2008, Healthy Eating for Pregnancy. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria. Viewed 4 August 2012, http://www.thewomens.org.au/healthyeatingforpregnancy

Vitamin D

1. Nowson et al. Vitamin D and health in adults in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement. Medical Journal of Australia. 2012; 196: 1-7.

2. Mulligan M, Felton S, Riek A, Bernal-Mizrachi C. Implications of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2010; 202: 429.e1-9.

3. Cotter R, Moreines J, Ellenbogen L. ‘ Use of Vitamin Mineral Supplements,’ in Berdanier C, Dwyer J, Feldman E (ed), Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York, pp. 193-219.

4. Barrett H, McElduff A. Vitamin D and pregnancy: An old problem revisited. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010; 24: 527-539.

5. Southern Health. 2009, Vitamin D in pregnancy and the term newborn guideline. Clinical Protocols and Guidelines, Southern Health, Victoria. Viewed 18 August 2012, http://www.southernhealth.org.au/icms_docs/3569_Vitamin_D_in_pregnancy_and_breastfeeding_guideline.pdf

6. Holick M, Chen T. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007: 87; 1080S-1086S.

7. De-Regil LM, Palacios C, Ansary A, Kulier R, Peña-Rosas JP. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008873. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008873.pub2.

8. Perampalam S, et al. Vitamin D status and its predictive factors in pregnancy in 2 Australian populations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2011; 51: 353-359.

9. Thomson K, Morley R, Grover S, Zacharin M. Postnatal evaluation of vitamin D and bone health in women who were vitamin-D deficient in pregnancy, and in their infants. Medical Journal of Australia. 2004; 181: 486-488.

10. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Vitamin D: Screening and Supplementation in Pregnancy. Committee Opinion No. 495. 2011; 118: 197-198.

11. Senterre T, Rigo J. 2010, ‘Macronutrients for lactation and infant growth,’ in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge, pp 63-71.

Skin changes

1. Young G, Jewell D. Creams for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000066. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000066.

2. Better Health Channel. 2012, Stretch Marks. State Government of Victoria. Viewed on 28 August 2012, http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Stretch_marks

3. American Pregnancy Association. 2007, Skin Changes During Pregnancy. Viewed 28 August 2012, http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/skinchanges.html

4. Tunzi M, Gray G. Common Skin Conditions During Pregnancy. American Family Physician. 2007; 75(2): 211-218.

5. Osman H, Rubeiz N, Tamim H, Nassar A. Risk factors for the development of striae gravidarum. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2007; 196(62):e1-e5.

6. American Academy of Dermatology. 2010, AcneNet – Comprehensive online acne information service. Viewed 29 August 2012, http://www.skincarephysicians.com/acnenet/acne.html

7. Yosipovitch G, DeVore A, Dawn A. Obesity and the skin: Skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology. 2007; 56: 901-916.

8. Bowe W, Joshi S, Shalita A. Diet and acne. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology. 2010; 62: 124-141.

9. Soo Bae Y, Bibi Y, Cohen AD. Innovative Uses for Zinc in Dermatology. Dermatology Clinic. 2010; 28: 587-597.

10. Reszko A, Berson D, Lupo M. Cosmeceuticals: Practical Applications. Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic of North America. 2010; 37: 547-569.

11. Rajaratnam R, Halpern J, Salim A, Emmett C. Interventions for melasma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD003583. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003583.pub2.

12. Morelli V, Jhingade V. Alternative Therapies for Common Dermatologic Disorders Part 2. Primary Care Clinical Office Practitioner. 2010; 27: 285-296.

13. Goldfaden G. 2009, ‘Report: Revitalize Aging Skin with Vitamin C.’ Life Extension Magazine.

Iodine

1. Children, Youth and Women’s Health Service (CYWHS). 2010, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. South Australia Health, Adelaide.

2. Gambling L, McArdle HJ. 2010, ‘Mineral requirements of the mother and conceptus’ in Symonds M, Ramsay M (ed), Maternal-fetal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, 2010 University Press, Cambridge.

3. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2010, NHMRC Public Statement – Iodine Supplementation for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women.

4. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2009, Iodine Supplementation During Pregnancy and Lactation – Literature Review.

5. Gallego G, Goodall S, Eastman C. Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted? Medical Journal of Australia. 2010; 192: 461-463.

6. Mackerras D, Eastman C. Estimating the iodine supplementation level to recommend for pregnant and breastfeeding women in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia. 2012; 197: 238-243.

Food Cravings

1. Brown L, 2011, ‘Nutrition Requirements in Pregnancy’, in Sharlin S, Edelstein S, Essentials of Life Cycle Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishing, Canada, pp. 1-24.

2. Rajapaksa S. 2012, Craving Sweet Foods and its link to Diabetes in Pregnancy. Health News Highlights. Viewed 14 October 2012, http://www.nutritionremarks.com/contact-us-2/highlights-2/craving-sweet-foods-and-its-link-to-diabetes-in-pregnancy/

3. Knox T. Food Cravings and Aversions in Human Pregnancy. Human Reproduction 316 Investigative Review.

4. The Royal Women’s Hospital. 2008, Coping with common discomforts of pregnancy. The Royal Women’s Hospital, Victoria. Viewed 14 October 2012, http://www.thewomens.org.au/copingwithcommondiscomfortsofpregnancy

5. Hook E. Dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1978; 31: 1355-1362.

6. Better Health Channel. 2012, Pregnancy – signs and symptoms. State Government of Victoria. Viewed 15 October, 2012, http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Pregnancy_signs_and_symptoms

7. Mortazavi Z, Mohammadi M. Prevalence of pica in pregnancy women referred to health care centers in Zahedan Iran (2002-2003). African Journal of Food Science. 2010; 4: 642-645.

8. Corbett RW, Ryan C, Weinrich SP. Pica in Pregnancy: Does It Affect Pregnancy Outcomes? The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 2003; 28: 183-189.

9. Khan Y, Tisman G. Pica in iron deficiency a case series. Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2010; 4: 86.

Healthy Snacking

1. Frito-Lay. 2012, Snack Sense – Healthy Snacking. Viewed on 15 November, http://www.snacksense.com/healthy-snacking

2. Nutrition and Dietetics, Women and Newborn Health Service. 2010, Gestational Diabetes Healthy Eating. Government of Western Australia, Perth.

3. Nutrition and Dietetics, Women and Newborn Health Service. 2010, Nutritional Fitness in Pregnancy. Government of Western Australia, Perth.

4. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2005, Food for Health – Dietary Guidelines for Australians.

5. Qld Government. 2012, Healthy Weight Gain During Pregnancy.

6. Australian Government. 1998, Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.

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